Glossary Terms


Something that is not alive.
Something that precisely conforms to facts and faithfully represents what is true.
A person between the ages of 13 and 19.
Someone who defends, supports, or promotes a cause, proposal, or the interests of another.
An unprovoked attack, invasion, or forceful action by one state that violates the rights of another state. Acts that could potentially be harmful to oneself or other people.
Mainly aquatic, eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms with no roots, stems, or leaves, ranging in size.
The rapid increase or growth of algae near the surface in an aquatic system.
An expression that contains one or more numbers, one or more variables, and one or more mathematical operations.
An unselfish concern for the welfare of others.
To separate an intellectual whole in order to investigate and evaluate its parts; the results of such thinking.
The study of recorded human history through the Early Middle Ages.
Two rays sharing a common endpoint.
Explanatory comment or note.
A universal and recognizable personality type in a person or character.
The amount of space taken up in a plane by a geometric figure.
A form of reasoning designed to demonstrate the truth of a particular point of view. A statement offered as proof or evidence of the veracity of a point of view with the goal of persuading a reader or listener to agree.
The smallest, basic unit of matter of a chemical element.
The units of mass of an atom.
A line that divides a space or a body (entity), often into two symmetric parts; can be vertical or horizontal.
A line that divides a space or a body (entity), often into two symmetric parts; can be vertical or horizontal.
A tendency, inclination, or outlook that encourages prejudiced judgment.
A list of books or sources used or referred to in a text.
Totality and variety of genes, plant and animal species, and ecosystems of a region.
Caused or produced by organisms that are alive.
Cut into two congruent halves.
Of or relating to any subfamily of bovids, especially the ox or cow.
The quality of being brave or courageous.
A phrase originally coined in June 2001 by Charles Krauthammer, the term describes foreign policy principles employed by former United States president George W. Bush.
To perform a mathematical process; to determine the solution to a mathematical problem.
The process, result, or act of performing a mathematical process (calculating).
A profession or occupation that may require special training or education and is held by an individual for an extended period of time.
The basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all living organisms.
Linking of atoms that occurs when they are acted on by an electrical force.
Techniques used in film that influence the meaning; methods used to elicit responses from an audience.
A closed plane curve consisting of all points at a given distance from a point within it called the center.
A quotation from a reference, especially in a scholarly work.
An advanced state of human society marked by a high level of development and organization, including in the arts, sciences, and government.
To demand as a right.
Systematically grouping organisms into categories based on the relationships between them.
A short excerpt of text that has certain words deleted and replaced with a blank. Students read the cloze passage and fill in the missing words based on context clues within the passage. This is a method to help the teacher determine the comprehension skills of a student.
The act, process, or condition of holding together or being well connected.
To work together; to cooperate to achieve a goal or complete a task.
Able to be transmitted from one person to another, animal to animal, human to animal, or animal to human; contagious.
An idealistic economic system that is theoretically characterized by collective ownership of property and the idea that “each one works for the benefit of each other one” in the society; also a government system in which the state owns and controls everything for the purpose of ensuring that all goods are equally shared by all the people in the state.
To examine for the purpose of exploring the similarities and/or differences between two or more entities, ideas, etc.
An awareness of others’ suffering combined with a desire to relieve it.
The process of converting the quadratic equation from the general form to the standard form and is used to solve quadratic equations and graph quadratic functions.
The act or process of being reduced in size or volume by pressure or force.
The end or last part of something; often includes a judgment, decision, or call to respond to what has been read, discussed, etc.
A three-dimensional figure with a single base tapering to an apex.
Exactly equal in size and shape.
To overcome or defeat by force.
General agreement.
Relating to, about, or in agreement with a constitution; describing something that was established by or permissible according to a constitution.
Condition that the solution to an optimization problem must satisfy. Two types of constraints are equality constraints and inequality constraints.
The accepted ways or techniques of communicating in writing, drama, literature, art, etc.
A number that indicates the precise position of a point or other geometric element; when using a grid, the first coordinate indicates the position on the x axis (typically horizontal) and the second indicates the position on the y axis (typically vertical).
To put a piece of writing into an acceptable form.
Mental or moral strength when faced with danger, fear, pain, grief, and so on.
Type of chemical bond in which atoms share one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons.
A statistical measure of the tendency of two variables to change in conjunction with each other.
The lack of courage or bravery.
The believability or truthfulness of someone or something.
A believable or trustworthy source of information.
A conclusion or appraisal that is based on a careful evaluation.
The study of living things, such as the properties of organisms and tissues, at very low temperatures.
Relating to low temperatures.
The practice of freezing the body of a deceased person with the intent of restoring the person’s life in the future if a cure is found for the illness/disease that caused his or her death.
A regular solid with six congruent square faces; the third power of a number or quantity. Expressed as x³.
The behaviors, beliefs, institutions, art forms, and all other aspects of a group’s work and thought which are shared through their social interactions and express their unique characteristics.
A hypoxic area of the ocean or a large lake, often caused by pollution, that is inadequate to support life.
Discussion of questions or formal argument with presentations from opposing sides of an issue.
Any number in the base-ten number system; decimal point is used to separate the ones place from the tenths place in decimals.
A system of government by the rule of majority of the people.
Individual citizens and groups participate in making decisions relating to the government.
To convey an idea or an impression through speech or writing.
A line segment connecting non-adjacent vertices of a polygon.
A conversation, discussion, or verbal exchange between two or more people or characters in a book, play, or movie.
A line segment that is straight and passes through the center of a shape, such as a circle or a sphere; the length of this segment.
Clarity of pronunciation. Word choice, with special attention to correctness.
The process during which food is broken down into simple chemical compounds and converted into energy that can be absorbed and used by the body.
The data trail left by a person's individual actions and transmissions of information in an online environment, such as uploading pictures online, sending e-mail, posting in online forums, and so on. Also refers to the size of a person's online presence in social media.
Information and publicly available data about a person that is not generated by that person; for instance, information collected through names on mailing lists, credit card purchase history, surveillance footage, and so on.
The practice or profession of managing international relations and conducting negotiations tactfully.
Something that causes widespread destruction and distress such as a hurricane, tornado, or bomb.
To consider (something) in speech or writing with another person(s).
A disordered or incorrectly functioning part or system in a human body, animal, or plant.
Graph that measures how far two objects are from each other; often show a journey.
Any of three primary divisions of living systems that rank above a kingdom in the classification of living organisms.
The organization of production, distribution, and consumption within a group, society, or political state.
A biological network of interacting organisms among and between the living resources and their environment.
An opinion article on a topical issue written by an editor or publisher.
The simplest substance consisting of atoms, defined by the number of protons it possesses, that cannot be broken down by chemical methods.
Having the shape of an ellipse, like an egg or an oval.
Till was a 14-year-old African American boy who was murdered in Mississippi in 1955 for flirting with a white woman. His mother insisted on an open casket to publicly show the brutality of the murder. His case received great attention and was symbolic of the racial tensions of that era.
An extensive group of states, countries, or territories under a single supreme political unit.
Unable to be either created or destroyed, it converts to different forms; the ability to do work or produce change.
The state of being the same in status, amount, rights, or opportunity.
Mathematical sentence that compares two expressions linked by an equals sign.
To examine the kind and quantity of errors or mistakes that occur on a particular assignment; a way of determining areas of difficulty.
A brief literary composition focused on a particular subject; it usually presents an author’s personal point of view.
Finding the reasonable upper and lower bounds of a quantity even when not all of the variables are defined.
To judge the value or worth of something.
Facts, information, or something that provides proof to support whether a belief is true or valid.
The waste products eliminated by an organism after digestion occurs; matter such as urine or sweat that is eliminated by the body.
A statement or message that describes something so that it is understandable to the reader or listener.
A limited (as opposed to infinite) combination of symbols that are formed correctly according to the rules that apply to a particular mathematic context.
The angle created between any side of a polygon and an extended adjacent side.
The dying out or termination of a species, occurring when a species can no longer reproduce at replacement levels.
An authoritarian, totalitarian, nationalistic political philosophy, movement, regime, or system of government.
A work of literature that is imaginary, invented by its author, not factual or true.
A meaning that exaggerates or alters the literal meaning of a word, sentence, essay, etc.
Relating to a country different from one’s one.
A statement, usually an equation, of a fact, principle, rule, or other logical relationship; often used to solve a problem.
An expression that indicates the quotient of two quantities, such as ½.
The number of repetitions of vibrations in a specific amount of time, measured in hertz.
A relation, such that each element of a set (the domain) is associated with a unique element of another (possibly the same) set (the codomain).
Complete set of an organism's hereditary or genetic material.
A kind, class, or category, especially of an artistic or literary work.
The study of the earth and its features and the way these have affected or influenced human activity and distribution.
A brainstorming activity. A student folds a sheet of paper in half and writes a list of the facts he or she already knows about the topic in one column (Give One). Then, the student meets with a partner and they share their ideas. Each student adds new information into the second (Get One) column.
The system by which a community is ruled; the structure that informs, shapes, and sustains the distribution and exercise of authority in a political state.
How words combine to form sentences; can include syntax, morphology, phonology, and semantics.
A diagram that exhibits a relationship, often functional, between two sets of numbers as a set of points having coordinates determined by the relationship; also called plot.
A visual representation of an idea, concept, subject, etc. used to enhance learning and the organization and recall of what is learned.
A political movement originating at a local level, led by community members, rather than originating from traditional sources of political influence, such as a political party.
A problem-solving strategy that students can use to solve mathematical problems by guessing the answer and then checking that the guess fits the conditions of the problem.
The author of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, for which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize.
A male character admired for his achievements, courage, and noble qualities.
Joseph Campbell's monomyth proposes that narratives from around the world follow a basic pattern where the main character, or hero, leaves the common world and enters a supernatural world, achieves a victory, and then returns to the regular world with powers to help others.
To show integrity through one’s actions; to be held in high esteem or great respect.
Rights considered fundamental, and to which all people are inherently entitled, simply because they are human beings.
An equation that is always true.
A set of beliefs, ideas, or a worldview that guide an individual, social movement, class, or large group.
The use of language to create mental pictures.
A term used to compare two expressions that are linked by less than <, less than or equal to =, greater than >, greater than or equal to =.
Of a communicable disease-causing organism that can spread infection; liable to transmit infection.
A reasonable guess or extension of a concept that is based on observations and logic.
Natural numbers and their negatives, such as … -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 …; Integers are not expressed as fractions or with decimal points.
The coordinate of a point where a line, curve, or surface intersects an axis.
The angle formed on the inside of a polygon where two adjacent sides meet.
The property of remaining unchanged regardless of changes in the conditions of measurement.
To systematically examine.
A type of chemical bond that occurs between two ions with opposite charges; also called electrovalent.
Words that express the opposite of the literal meaning, usually done for humorous effect.
A national policy of remaining separate from the relations of other countries.
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
A body of principles of military ethics that deals with the reasons and explanations of how and why wars are fought.
A young person or child; someone that has not fully grown; immature of childish behavior.
The amount of energy an object has due to its motion.
The highest (most broad) level of classification for an organism; animal, vegetable, or mineral.
A quadrilateral with two pair of adjacent sides that are congruent.
The amount of energy in an isolated system can neither be created nor destroyed, so it remains constant.
Matter cannot be created or destroyed in a closed system.
The process by which a bill becomes a law in the U.S. Congress.
An algebraic equation, such as y = 2x + 7 or 3x + 2y - z = 4, in which the highest degree term in the variable or variables is of the first degree. The graph of such an equation is a straight line if there are two variables.
Data that form a straight line when graphed.
The individual aspects of a piece of writing such as its theme, conflict, characterization, setting, tone, perspective, etc. and how an author uses these to communicate his/her ideas.
Animals raised and kept in an agricultural setting with the purpose of producing goods for commerce.
The way a person organizes their reasoning to reach a conclusion.
Editing the content of a news story.
Relating to or created by the ocean.
Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) that has mass and takes up space.
What a writer expresses and a reader understands. It is communicated by the words, phrases, and sentences that describe objects, concepts, and the context of a piece of writing.
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that designates a specific object or idea represents another object or idea, suggesting a relationship or comparison between them.
Editing the technical aspects of writing, such as the punctuation, spelling, and grammar.
The smallest physical unit of an element or compound consisting of one or more atoms.
A term coined by Joseph Campbell to describe a hero’s journey.
A story that describes a sequence of events; can be fiction or nonfiction.
Materials that occur naturally within environments, such as minerals, timber, water, or land, that can be used for economic gain or have economic value.
When a line goes down and to the right.
The act or policy of nonparticipation or remaining neutral in a dispute or war.
A form of writing in which an author gives an account of something he/she believes to be true, as opposed to fiction which recounts events that are imagined by the author. Examples include essays, documentaries, histories, journals, etc.
The branch of chemistry that addresses nuclear reactions and radioactive substances.
Energy released by reactions in the nucleus of an atom.
An action or a process (such as addition, transposition, or substitution) that is performed in a particular sequence and according to specific rules.
Expression of resistance or dissent; a group of competitors, such as a rival political party, who opposes something.
Problem typically involving a scenario in which limited resources must be used to their greatest effect; problem in which the optimum solution is identified from all feasible solutions.
A formal speech given at a ceremony or special occasion; the manner in which a speech is delivered.
A specific structure within a cell that performs a particular function; examples include a chloroplast, mitochondrion, and vacuole.
An individual life form such as an animal, bacteria, fungus, or plant.
An outbreak of a disease affecting a large portion of the population or spanning a large geographic region.
A section of a cone where a right circular conical surface intersects with a plane parallel to a generating straight line of that surface. Given a point (focus) and a corresponding line (directrix) on the plane, a parabola is the locus of points in that plane that are equidistant from them. It looks like a U or V shape and can open in any direction.
Two lines in a plane that never intersect or meet.
A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.
To restate in another form or different words, often to make the meaning more clear or to reflect in one’s own words what another has already stated.
A very small piece or portion of matter.
A germ, like a bacterium or virus, which can cause disease.
Love for one’s country; willingness to defend and support one’s country.
A polygon with five sides and five angles.
A ratio whose second term is 100; percent means parts per hundred; symbolized by %.
The sum of the lengths of the sides of a polygon.
Two lines in a plane that form congruent adjacent angles; all of the angles created by the intersection of perpendicular lines are called right angles.
The process by which green plants turn light into chemical energy.
An auditory attribute of tone that may be used to order sounds on a frequency scale.
To copy or imitate another’s work (ideas, language, thoughts, etc.) and present it as one’s own original work.
To use coordinates to locate points or other figures on a graph; to connect points on a graph; to represent data on a graph.
A piece of writing constructed in meter and verse.
A substance in the environment that has harmful effects; something that contaminates soil, water, or the atmosphere.
A closed plane figure for which all sides are line segments.
The amount of people living in a specific area or unit of measurement . (The Impact of Geography on Population Density in Canada)
When a line goes up and to the right.
A deterrent or having the power to take action against an anticipated situation or occurrence.
Prejudgment based on preconceived beliefs and judgments towards people of a particular group because of specific personal characteristics.
Material that is closest to what is being studied, usually an artifact, document, recording, or interview, that was created during the time period or within the context under investigation by a person directly involved in the event.
To arrange in order of importance.
The surface of a cylindric solid whose base is a polygon.
A state of being free from observation or intrusion by other people.
The likelihood that a particular event will happen.
A high ridge of rock or land that juts into a body of water.
Misleading or prejudiced information intentionally used to promote a particular political cause or to harm another person, group, cause, or state.
Two quantities that have a constant ratio.
Common speech or writing that does not have a particular metrical structure.
Eukaryotic organisms in the kingdom Protista.
A phylum or grouping of composed of unicellular eukaryotic organisms.
A structure with a base and at least three outer triangular surfaces that converge at a point.
The relationship between the three sides of a right triangle which states that the square of the longest side (the hypotenuse) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The Pythagorean equation looks like this
An equation in which one or more of the terms is squared but raised to no higher power, having the general form ax² + bx + c = 0, where a, b, and c are constants. When graphed, this relationship is represented by a parabola (U-shaped curve).
A polygon with four sides and four angles.
Students are presented with an open-ended question and given a short, set amount of time to write their response.
The belief that there are inherent qualities, characteristics, or abilities particular to each race; prejudice or discrimination based on that belief.
A line segment that joins the center of a shape with any point on its circumference; the length of such a segment.
Running a large farm, especially one that breeds cattle or other animals.
A decrease in density and pressure in a medium due to the passage of a wave.
Giving formal approval, sanction, or confirmation.
The relationship between two things
The act of refuting by presenting another argument.
Any activity that a person engages in during their free or leisure time.
A quadrilateral with four congruent angles, all of which are equal to 90º.
A three-dimensional quadrilateral with four congruent angles, all of which are equal to 90º.
A sober, intentional, and careful consideration.
To prove that something or someone is wrong or false by use of evidence or through an argument.
Something that relates to the subject under consideration.
To say or write multiple times for emphasis.
A representative government where the citizens are ruled by law, the administration is open to the citizens, and the head of state is not a monarch.
Necessary, essential, compulsory, or obligatory.
Scholarly investigation or careful study for the purpose of presenting accurate and detailed information about a topic, person, and so on.
The act of breathing
A fundamental change or overthrow of a system of government or social order, resulting in its being replaced by a new system.
The study or art of using language to communicate effectively, often to persuade or influence.
A parallelogram with four equal sides and oblique angles.
Triangle having one right angle (90º).
A scoring tool used to set performance expectations; a way in which performance is measured.
Determining the ratio of any two corresponding lengths in two similar geometric figures.
A type of visual display used to depict the values of two variables for a specific set of data. Variables are graphed using Cartesian coordinates and appear as a collection of points. Scatter charts are often used to measure correlations between variables.
The discipline of observing, identifying, describing, experimenting, and offering theories to explain phenomena in the world.
The particular method of investigation used by scientists that involves observing a phenomenon, formulating a hypothesis about it, conducting experiments to prove the hypothesis true or false, and developing a conclusion that validates or modifies the original hypothesis.
Information that is derived from a primary source (first person experience) that is once removed and interpreted or gathered by another second-person source, such as an encyclopedia, history text, or essay.
Defending or protecting oneself or property from being harmed by another.
To put into a particular order; a specific arrangement of events or items.
When two triangles have corresponding angles that are congruent.
When equations must be solved at the same time in order to reach the solution to a mathematical problem.
Measurement of the steepness of a line.
A group of people with distinct interests, characteristics, and relationships that set them apart from other groups; an association of people organized around a common goal, activity, or interest.
An instructional technique where the teacher asks questions of his or her students to guide them toward understanding, rather than presenting students with the information.
The set of all points in a three-dimensional space lying the same distance from a given point or center.
A fixed number of lines of verse that form a unit within a poem.
The mathematics of collecting, organizing, classifying and interpreting data; it can also mean numerical data itself.
The way the parts of something are arranged to form a whole.
The way something is said, expressed, performed, or completed; it is the unique way of communicating that sets a person, piece of writing, speech, etc. a part from others.
To list or review the main points.
Able to be maintained or used long term with minimal effects on the environment.
The act of an object or action standing for something else.
A word with the same – or close to the same – meaning as another word or words.
The ways in which words are put together to construct meaning.
A way of organizing data, usually in the form of columns and rows within a rectangular form.
The literal or precise meaning of something.
The United States Code of Federal Regulations definition is as follows: “the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” (28 C.F.R. Section 0.85).
The ongoing state of political, economic, and military tension between governments promoting communism and those, such as the United States, who promote a democratic form of government; it occurred after World War II and lasted (officially) until 1991.
The main idea, subject, or topic.
A proposition (or problem) that has been proven, or is to be proven, using explicit assumptions.
A sentence that states an argument or main point, which is developed in an essay or paper and supported with examples and evidence.
The way something is expressed to convey mood or emotion. For example, changes in pitch to communicate different meanings.
Able to be passed, spread, or conveyed; communicable.
A quadrilateral with one parallel pair of opposite sides and one non-parallel pair of opposite sides.
An official or formal agreement between states in reference to peace, alliance, or trade.
A polygon with three sides and three angles.
A sexually transmitted parasitic infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.
An absolute ruler who uses power oppressively.
To take on the qualities or characteristics of a city; the growth of cities due to migration of populations from rural and suburban areas into cities.
A preparation including weakened or killed bacteria or viruses that is administered to create immunity to a disease by stimulating antibody production. (Pandemic
The principles, standards, or beliefs considered desirable and worthwhile by a person or a group.
Letters that represent numbers in algebraic expressions; called variables because the numbers they represent can vary; one or more numbers can be substituted for the letters in an algebraic expression; also referred to as the unknown.
The point at which the two rays making up an angle meet. It is also the point on a parabola where it changes directions. Also called the turning point.
Relating to the medical treatment and diseases of animals.
A short story or literary sketch that focuses on one specific moment.
The extent to which a microorganism may be venomous or have the capacity to cause disease.
An infectious agent composed of an RNA or DNA core within a protein coat that replicates and grows only within cells of living hosts, to cause diseases in people.
The total amount of space enclosed in a solid.
The distance between successive corresponding peaks or crests of a wave of light, heat, sound, or other energy.
The x-coordinate of a point where a line, curve, or surface intersects the x-axis.
The y-coordinate of a point where a line, curve, or surface intersects the y-axis.
Obsessive, repetitive behavior associated with animals kept in prolonged captivity.

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