Discipline: ELA

Grade Level: 9, 10, 11, 12

©Literacy Design Collaborative. September 2011

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Language Is Power
What
Instruction?
  • Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task

      Duration: 20 minutes

      Task Engagement

      bility to connect the task and new content to existing knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and concerns

      SHORT CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE

      Writer's Notebook Prompt: Think back over all the arguments we have read (and viewed) during this unit. Based on your understanding of argument, for what purposes do people use language to persuade? Are they justified in doing so? Explain.

      Non-scoring

      Completion of/participation in task

      • Writer’s Notebook Prompt: Students will complete an opening journal entry and engage in discussion in order to review their current understanding of the use of language in creating change.
      • Discuss student responses.
      • Read through the teaching task together as a class. Students record their immediate reaction in writing, brainstorm areas for further study, and identify words or parts of the prompt that need to be clarified. Students highlight the parts of the prompt that give a directive. Students underline the parts of the prompt that emphasize a product.
      • Teacher leads discussion to help clarify parts of the prompt that are not understood.

      Duration: 40 minutes

      TASK ANALYSIS

      Ability to understand and explain the task's prompt and rubric.

      LIST

      In your own words, what are the important features of a good response to this prompt?

      Non-scoring

      Completion of/participation in task

      • As a whole class, read examples of arguments written by students featured on www.teenink.com. “Modern Patriotism” "Unshelving Classic Books”
      • Identify or invite students to identify key features of examples. While reading “Modern Patriotism,” students will take notes in a dialectical journal, recording key structural elements and rhetorical techniques that they notice in the argument. Students will then read and take similar notes on "Unshelving Classic Books."
      • Pair students to share and improve their dialectical journals.
      • As a whole class, discuss the features the two responses have in common. Create a classroom list: Choose one student to share a few ideas on the board, and ask others to add to it.
      • EXTRA SUPPORT: For collaborative classes or if students show difficulty in identifying key structural elements and rhetorical techniques, teacher will model annotation with the first sample article.
      • ENRICHMENT: For advanced groups, give students an additional student sample argument ("Pay for Play” from www.teenink.com) to read and annotate for structural elements and rhetorical techniques for homework.
  • Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process


      TEXT SELECTION

      Ability to identify appropriate texts

      NOTES

      For each text, list the needed bibliographic information. Add bullets on why you think the work is credible and worthy of study.

      Identifies author, title, publisher, date, and any other needed information (for example, the volume for a periodical or the editor for an anthology).

      Includes reasonable evidence that work is credible and worthy of study

      • Provide citation guide and discuss why each element of citation is needed.
      • Model how to evaluate a source to see if it is credible. Take students to one of the articles to be read on this day. Teacher models questioning process used to determine if article is a credible source.
      • Provide access to research sources for students to assess the texts’ credibility.

      Duration: 50 minutes


      Duration: 60 minutes


      Duration: 60 minutes

      ACTIVE READING

      Ability to identify the central point and main supporting elements of a text.

      NOTES

      What are the effects (positive and negative) of language in each article? How was language used to create change in both cases?


      NOTES

      How was language used to create change (both positive and negative) in each article?


      NOTES

      What is the author trying to accomplish? Which parts of the text show you that? L2 What competing arguments have you encountered or can you think of?



      Answers questions with credible response.



      • Read aloud the article “Propaganda in War Reporting on the U.S. War in Iraq.”
      • Have students take dialectical notes on the effect of language as they read.
      • After reading, discuss as a class the positive and negative effects of language as mentioned in the text.
      • Read aloud the article “Positive Power of Propaganda.”
      • Have students take dialectical notes on the effect of language as they read.
      • Discuss how language was used to create change in both cases. 
      • Invite students to brainstorm ways to figure out an author’s intent.
      • In small groups, have students reflect on the intent of the author for each article read previously. Also, ask them to discuss how the different articles took sides on the issue of manipulative language. Share these small-group discussions with the whole class.
      • In groups, students collect textual evidence of how language was used to create change in Animal Farm.
      • Invite students to share and discuss their answers from the Animal Farm text.
      • After the discussion, allow them to add to their entries (from the first day when they established an initial opinion).

      Duration: 25 minutes

      NOTE TAKING

      Ability to read purposefully and select relevant information; to summarize and/or paraphrase.

      NOTES

      From each text, make a list of the elements that look most important for answering the prompt. Use strategies to avoid plagiarism.

      L2(a) What strategies will you use to discern credible sources?

      L2(b): What implications can your draw? (Tasks 11,12 )

      L3 Why is it important in the process of inquiry to identify “gaps” or unanswered questions about the topic?

      Identifies relevant elements.

      Includes information to support accurate citation (for example, page numbers for a long text, clear indication when quoting directly, etc.).

      • Review how to incorporate information (direct and indirect quotes) from other sources. Review how to collect citation information.
      • Check that early student work is in the assigned format (or in another format that gathers the needed information effectively).
      • Students review articles used for active reading and select important facts and passages from the articles that could be used in their own writing (in response to the task).
  • Skills Cluster 3: Transition to Writing
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 3: Transition to Writing

      Duration: 15 minutes

      BRIDGING

      Ability to begin linking reading results to writing task.

      LIST

      In a quick-write, write about what you know now that you’ve read about (content). What additional note taking or research is needed?

      No scoring

      • Students create an abbreviated outline with the main points to be addressed in their paper now that they have completed their research.
      • Students list what additional research is needed.
  • Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process


      CONTROLLING IDEA

      Ability to establish a controlling idea and consolidate information relevant to task.

      SHORT CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE

      Write an opening paragraph that includes a controlling idea and sequences the key points you plan to make in your composition

      Writes a concise summary statement or draft opening.

      Provides direct answer to main prompt requirements.

      Establishes a controlling idea.

      Identifies key points that support development of argument.

      • Offer several examples of opening paragraphs.
      • Ask class to discuss what makes them strong or weak.
      • Review the list that students created earlier to identify needed elements (from Cluster 1, Skill 2).


      PLANNING:

      Ability to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an information/explanation task.

      OUTLINE

      Create an outline based on your notes and reading in which you state your claim, sequence your points, and note your supporting evidence.

      Creates an outline or organizer.

      Supports controlling idea. Uses evidence from texts read earlier.

      • Provide and teach one or more examples of outlines or organizers.
      • Invite students to generate questions in pairs about how the format works, and then take and answer questions.


      DEVELOPMENT

      Ability to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure.

      LONG CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE

      Write an initial draft complete with opening, development, and closing; insert and cite textual evidence.

      Provides complete draft with all parts.

      Supports the opening in the later sections with evidence and citations.

      • Encourage students to re-read prompt partway through writing to check that they are on track.


      REVISION

      Ability to refine text, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose.

      LONG CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE

      Refine composition’s analysis, logic, and organization of ideas and points. Use textual evidence carefully, with accurate citations. Decide what to include and what not to include.

      Provides complete draft with all parts.

      Supports the opening in the later sections with evidence and citations.

      Improves earlier edition.

      • Sample useful feedback that balances support for strengths and clarity about weaknesses.
      • Assign students partners to provide each other with feedback on strengths and weaknesses.


      EDITING

      Ability to proofread and format a piece to make it more effective.

      LONG CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE

      Revise draft to have sound spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and grammar. Adjust formatting as needed to provide clear, appealing text.

      Provides draft that is free from distracting surface errors.

      Uses format that supports purpose.

      • Briefly review selected skills that many students need to improve.
      • Teach a short list of proofreading marks.
      • Assign students to proofread each other’s texts a second time.


      COMPLETION

      Ability to submit final piece that meets expectations.

      LONG CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE

      Turn in your complete set of drafts, plus the final version of your piece.

      Fits the “Meets Expectations” category in the rubric for the teaching task.


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