Discipline: ELA

Grade Level: 8

Course: Communication Arts

©Literacy Design Collaborative. September 2011

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Extended Metaphors in Walt Whitman’s “O Captain! My Captain!”
What
Instruction?
  • Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task


      Optional Pre-test

      Administer classroom assessment as pre-test if the instructor needs to gather information. Read the poem “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes. Does the metaphor in this poem accurately describe life’s struggles? Provide details from the poem to support your claim.



      1 day

      Bridging conversation:

      Ability to connect the task and new content to existing knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and concerns.

      short response (5-8 items)

      In a quick-write, write your first reaction to the task prompt. What strategies might you use to gain knowledge of the issue and form an opinion?

      Collins: Type 1 Writing — Brainstorm List

      No scoring

      • Teach or review content required for the task depending on when content is taught, either before or during the production of the task.  
      • Conduct a seminar to help students focus on the task’s question or ideas and to open their minds to possible ways of thinking about the prompt.  

      1 day

      2. Task analysis:

      Ability to understand and explain the task’s prompt and rubric.  

      Short response (list 5 items)

      Introduction of Module

      What do you need to know and know how to do to accomplish this task?

      What materials will you need to accomplish this task?

      Which text structure best fits this task?

      No scoring

      • Review each student’s response to ensure she/he understands the task. Ensure relevant reading material is selected or provided.
      • Have students share responses so that students can hear/know what their peers are doing and encourage them to help each other when appropriate.
      • Discuss in detail the prompt, type of writing and structure, the product, and the rubric.

      1 day

      3. Project planning

      Ability to plan so that the task is accomplished on time.

      Timeline

      Create a project timeline.

      Meets

      Creates a “doable” timeline that paces reading and writing processes.


      Not Yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Model a sample or common timeline and homework.
      • Provide students with a timeline template.
      • Discuss the importance of planning.
  • Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process

      2 days

      Reading “habits of mind”:

      Ability to select appropriate texts and understand reading strategies needed for the task.

      1) Identify sources you will use and note how each source relates to your task.  2) Note sources in bibliographic format (if applicable).

      Meets

      Selects appropriate texts for task (if applicable).

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Students will be given teacher-selected texts and video clips relevant to the task.
      • Demonstrate reading strategies relevant to a type of text to prepare students for next steps in the ladder: highlight main idea, margin notes, and summarizing sections of a text.

      2 days

      2. Essential vocabulary

      Ability to apply strategies for developing an understanding of a text by locating words and phrases that identify key concepts and facts, or information.

      Vocabulary notebook entries

      In your notebook, identify key words or phrases as you read and define them denotatively and connotatively in the context of the passage in the work you are reading.  Add terms we identified as the “language of the discipline.”

      Meets

      Identifies vocabulary and phrases and notes their denotative meaning and, if applicable, their meaning in the context of the passages.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not Yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Teach strategies for understanding words in context.
      • Introduce or review relevant terms used in the discipline (“Lincoln: A Photobiography”: summarizing and tone; “O Captain! My Captain!”: extended metaphor, repetition, irony, tone, stanzas, symbolism).

      4-6 Days

      3. Note Taking

      Ability to read purposefully and select relevant information; to summarize and/or paraphrase.

      Notes & short response

      Using a note-taking method, select information (passages, facts, data) relevant to the task; list (bullet) each source and note relevant information. 

      L2 What strategies will you use to discern “credible sources”?

      L3 Why is it important in the process of inquiry to “identify gaps” or “unanswered questions” about the topic?

      What does “plagiarism” mean and what strategies can you use to avoid it? Model using in-text citations to document your sources. 

      The following tools can be referenced in the writer’s notebook:

      • Summarize sections of “Lincoln: A Photobiography” — focus on Freedman’s tone and connection to task. 
      • Analysis of “O Captain! My Captain!” — focus on metaphor, extended metaphor, repetition, irony.
      • Photobiography and poem summary/evidence chart.
      • Highlight evidence found in “Northerners Reaction to Lincoln’s Assassination” & “The War Ends: A Small Town’s Reaction” as well as the video clips from Safari Montage.

      Meets

      Accomplishes task by selecting relevant source material to support controlling idea (include L2 and 3 if applied to task).

      Answers question about plagiarism correctly and provides appropriate strategies for avoiding it.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not Yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Review policy for plagiarism and develop students’ understanding of it.
      • Provide students with a note-taking method and graphic organizer.
      • Discuss the term “relevant” and what it means stay on task — two demands embedded in the rubric.
      • Teach strategies for identifying and selecting source material in the form of quotes, passages, data, etc. as it relates to a controlling idea and task — give students strategies for avoiding “highlight sprawl.”
      • If teaching Levels 2 and/or 3, discuss the demands embedded in these levels as well.
      • Identify any gaps or unanswered questions as you read about your topic.

      2 days

      4. Organizing notes

      Ability to prioritize and narrow supporting information.

      Notes and graphic organizer

      Prioritize relevant information in your notes on which to build your sequence or process by utilizing an outline.  Students will not only choose relevant information, but will also organize it according to their body paragraphs.

      Meets

      Provides a prioritized set of notes that connects points for logic structure or line of thought.

      Suggests implications drawn from information about the issue or topic.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not Yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Students prioritize by creating topic sentences to illustrate their argument.
  • Skills Cluster 3: Transition to Writing
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 3: Transition to Writing

      1 day

      1. Bridging Conversation

      Ability to transition from reading or researching phase to the writing phase.

      Short response (with bullets), class work

      Choose your most reliable, relevant sources, reread the task, and discuss with a partner whether or not the information is accurate and is answering the prompt. 

      No scoring

      • Review professional or other samples of writing type and structure.
      • Deconstruct professional samples of the type of writing students will engage in:  
      • Demonstrate patterns of development (e.g., from most important to least important).
      • Note the difference between a claim and a controlling idea or thesis.
      • Note the difference between an “explanation” and an “argument”.
      • Analyze purpose and audience.
      • Analyze tone and language choices.
      • Evaluate effectiveness. Do you get the information and explanation you expect? Why?
      • Discuss the prompt and what students need to do to complete the writing portion.
      • Refer to rubric; point out demands and qualities of performance.
  • Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process

      1 day

      1. Initiation of task:

      Ability to establish a controlling idea and consolidate information relevant to task.

      Thesis statement

      Students will review their resources and information to formulate a thesis statement to use in their introduction. It must include their support towards the prompt.

      Meets

      Writes a concise summary statement or draft opening that establishes a controlling idea and identifies key points that support development of information and/or explanation.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Show students’ introductory paragraph possibilities from professional works.
      • Identify the hook, background information leading to the task, and thesis statement in other works.
      • Demonstrate or provide a checklist for the “ingredients” of an opening paragraph, such as author’s name, title of poem, background knowledge of Whitman, and concluding with a strong thesis statement.
      • Collectively write a summary demonstrating a controlling idea with key points that support the development of the explanation.

      1 day

      2. Planning

      Ability to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an argumentation task.

      Outline/plan

      Create an outline including key elements drawn from your reading or research and order them in some logical way (teacher provided outline to students).

      Mets

      Applies an outline strategy to develop reasoning for argument.

      Provides citations and references with elements for correct form. 

      Draws a credible implication from information about an issue or topic.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Use discussion-based strategies to develop thinking relevant to prompt.
      • Have students connect ideas among the arts, literature, events.

      2 days

      3. Development

      Ability to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure.

      First draft

      Redraft an opening for your composition with one or more paragraphs that establishes the controlling idea and provides a lead in for your reader.   Write an initial draft to include an introduction with thesis statement, three body paragraphs in order of relevance, and a conclusion. L2 Will include a rebuttal in the second or third body paragraph. L3 Will form an additional body paragraph highlighting a similar event in history.

      Meets

      Provides an opening to include a controlling idea and an opening strategy relevant to the prompt.

      Provides an initial draft with all elements of the prompt addressed.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • How to open and end an argumentation composition. 
      • Use of template for all levels to guide students through first draft.

      1 day

      4. Revision

      Ability to apply revision strategies to refine development of argument, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose.

      Revised drafts (two or more)/completed Focus Correction Areas [FCA] checklist)

      Apply revision strategies for clarity, logic, language, cohesion (students should do at least two drafts).  Be sure to include and review citations within the paragraphs to show your sources.

      Meets

      Demonstrates use of revision strategies that clarify logic and development of ideas; embeds relevant details; improves word-usage and phrasing; and creates smooth transitions between sentences and paragraphs.

      Applies a text structure to organize reading material content and to explain key points related to the prompt.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Develop ways to manage revision process so that students get feedback in timely and helpful ways.
      • Student-led revision session utilizing the editing checklist with the Focus Correction Areas (FCAs) both with a peer and independently.
      • Peer feedback on clarity of thinking and development of claim/argument.
      • Read aloud for peer and adult feedback.
      • Strategies for embedding information — citation methods, quoting, paraphrasing.

      6 days

      5. Editing

      Ability to apply editing strategies and presentation applications.

      Typed final draft

      Finalize draft for the readership; apply finishing touches (e.g., visuals, neatness, formatting, copy editing).

      Meets

      Demonstrates use of strategies that enhance the readability and appearance of the work for presentation.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Use of error analysis to encourage self-correction of language usage and grammatical errors. 
      • Use of copyediting marks.


      Final Draft:

      Submit your final draft before or on due date for scoring and feedback.





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