Discipline: Science

Grade Level: Grade Eight

Course: Physical Science

©Literacy Design Collaborative. September 2011

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Cryobiology
What
Instruction?
  • Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task

      1 class period

      Bridging conversation

      Ability to connect the task and new content to existing knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and concerns.

      Short response

      Mr. Kimmel is considering cryonic preservation when he passes away. Write a letter to him that advises him what to do. Be sure to explain why you think he should or should not be cryonically preserved.

      No scoring

      • Teach or review content required for the task  either before or during the production of the task.  
      • Teacher used MetaMetrics Oasis web-based system to have students respond to the prompt. The Oasis program provided a baseline Lexile score for each student’s writing.

      1 class period

      2. Task analysis

      Ability to understand and explain the task’s prompt and rubric.  

      Short response

      In your own words, write a brief explanation of what you need to carry out the task. 

      No scoring

      • While students are writing, the teacher circulates around the room to review each student’s response to ensure she/he understands the task.
      • Have students share responses by posting them on the interactive white board so that students can hear/know what their peers are thinking.
      • Discuss in detail the prompt, type of writing, paper structure, the final product, and the rubric.
      • Students respond in Writer’s Notebooks. (See attached.)

      Pacing completed by the teacher

      3. Project planning

      Ability to plan so that the task is accomplished on time.

      Timeline

      Create a project timeline.

      N/A

      • Teacher provides timeline with due dates.
      • Discuss the importance of planning.
  • Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process

      4 class periods

      Reading “habits of mind”

      Ability to select appropriate texts and understand necessary reading strategies needed for the task.

      Annotated text

      Use “Talking to the Text” strategy to understand the texts.  Identify text structures of the articles.

      Meets

      Demonstrated active reading using annotation.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Teacher guides reading for first reading selection.
      • Students use a variety of active reading strategies with appropriate support for the remaining selections.
      • Teacher uses group discussion to extend thinking.
      • Teacher reinforces active reading techniques throughout student readings by having students demonstrate processes through the use of the interactive white board.
      • See handout “Directions for Reading and Taking Notes on the Articles.”

      ongoing

      2. Essential vocabulary

      Ability to apply strategies for developing an understanding of a text by locating words and phrases that identify key concepts and facts, or information.

      Vocabulary notebook entries

      Compare and contrast the terms: cryobiology, cryonics, and cryogenics.  Using vocabulary page in Writer’s Notebook, define words in context as you read.

      Meets

      Explains similarities and differences of the terms: cryobiology, cryonics, and cryogenics. 

      Identifies vocabulary and phrases. Notes their meaning in context of the passages.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Use  dictionaries and other sources to acquire understanding.
      • Teach strategies for understanding words in context.
      • Introduce language of reading and writing relevant to task.
      • Introduce or review relevant terms used in the discipline (e.g., cryonics, cryobiology, cryogenics).

      3 class periods

      3. Note taking

      Ability to read purposefully and select relevant information; to summarize and/or paraphrase.  

      Notes & short response

      Using a note-taking method, select information (passages, facts, data) relevant to the task; list (bullet) each source and note relevant information.  Refer to Writer’s Notebook: “Cryobiology – Argumentative Module Notes.”

      List pros and cons of cryobiology techniques.

      What does “plagiarism” mean and what strategies can you use to avoid it?

      Complete samples of paraphrasing.


      Meets

      Accomplishes task by defining “cryobiology,” and listing reasons showing pros and cons for using cryobiology techniques.

      Answers question about plagiarism correctly and provides appropriate strategies for avoiding it.

      Paraphrasing of sample information.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Review policy for plagiarism and develop students’ understanding of it.
      • Provide students with a note-taking methods and template. (See “Cryobiology – Argumentative Module Notes” sheet.)
      • Discuss the term “relevant” and what it means stay on task – two demands embedded in the rubric.
      • Identify any gaps or unanswered questions as you do you read about your topic.
      • Teach strategies for summarizing or paraphrasing.

      On-going

      4. Organizing notes

      Ability to prioritize and narrow supporting information.

      Notes and graphic organizer

      Prioritize relevant information in your notes on which to build your sequence or process.

      Meets

      The prioritized set of notes connects points for logic structure or line of thought.

      Suggests implications drawn from information about the issue or topic.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Students organize notes using the “Directions for Reading and Taking Notes on the Articles” sheet and teacher feedback. 
  • Skills Cluster 3: Transition to Writing
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 3: Transition to Writing

      2 class periods

      1. Bridging conversation

      Ability to transition from reading or researching phase to the writing phase.

      Note cards, oral discussion

      Following Socratic seminar guidelines, students explore both sides of the issue.

      No scoring

      • Use a video recorder to film the seminar for students to view and evaluate.
      • Conduct a value-line exercise to ensure students understand a range of issues or options.
      • Review guidelines for the Socratic seminar. (See the Paideia Seminar Manual: Active Thinking Through Dialogue for background on how to conduct a seminar).
      • Teacher conducts a fishbowl modeling of a mini-Socratic seminar using a common science topic and student volunteers.
      • Conduct a Socratic seminar on the prompt’s question, key issue, or topic. Organize students in small groups to ensure both sides of issue are represented.
      • Following the seminar, students evaluate the effectiveness of details and examples to support their claim.  Reread and adjust notes as necessary.
      • Review professional or other samples of writing type and structure.
      • Deconstruct professional samples of the type of writing students will engage in:
      • Demonstrate patterns of development (e.g., from most important to least important).
      • Note the difference between a claim and a controlling idea or thesis.
      • Note the difference between an “explanation” and an “argument.”
      • Analyze purpose and audience.
      • Analyze tone and language choices.
      • Evaluate effectiveness – Do you get the information and explanation you expect? Why?
      • Discuss the prompt and what students need to do to complete the writing portion.
      • Refer to rubric – point out demands and qualities of performance.
  • Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process
    • Pacing Skill and Definition Mini-Task Instructional Strategies
      Product and Prompt Scoring (Product "Meets Expectations" if it...)

      Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process

      1 class period

      1. Planning:

      Ability to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an argumentation task.

      Outline/plan on teacher-provided template

      Create an outline including key elements drawn from your reading or research and order them in some logical way (e.g., chronologically, sequentially).

      Meets

      Applies an outline strategy to develop reasoning for argument.

      Provides citations and references with elements for correct form. 

      Draws a credible implication from information about an issue or topic.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meet.”

      • Use mini-lessons in logic structures.
      • Use discussion-based strategies to develop thinking relevant to prompt.
      • Have students connect ideas among the arts, literature, events.

      2 class periods

      Initiation of task

      Ability to establish a controlling idea and consolidate information relevant to task.

      Paragraph

      Write a summary paragraph that includes a controlling idea and sequences the key points you plan to make in your composition.

      Meets

      Writes a concise summary statement or drafts an opening that establishes a controlling idea and identifies key points that support development of information and/or explanation.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Show students’ thesis statements and opening paragraphs.
      • Demonstrate how to write an opening paragraph using the template provided on “Brainstorming Article Organizer” sheet found in Writer’s Notebook.

      2 class periods

      3. Development

      Ability to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure.

      Opening paragraph and first draft

      Redraft an opening for your composition with one or more paragraphs that establishes the controlling idea and provides a lead-in for your reader. Write an initial draft of multiple paragraphs, including an opening, argument one, argument two, argument three, and a closing paragraph.

      Meets

      The opening paragraph includes a controlling idea and an opening strategy relevant to the prompt.

      An initial draft addresses  all elements of the prompt.

      Writes in readable prose.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • How to open and end an argumentation composition.
      • Use of template for all levels to guide students through first draft (Brainstorming Article Organizer).
      • Student-led revision session using “Revising the Rough Draft” in Writer’s Notebook.

      3 class periods

      4. Revision

      Ability to apply revision strategies to refine development of argument, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose.

      Revised drafts (two or more)

      Apply revision strategies for clarity, logic, language, cohesion (students should do at least two drafts).  

      Meets

      Demonstrates use of revision strategies that clarify logic and development of ideas, embeds relevant details, improves word-usage and phrasing, and creates smooth transitions between sentences and paragraphs.

      Applies a text structure to organize reading material content and to explain key points related to the prompt.

      Organizes a bibliography.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Develop ways to manage revision process so that students get feedback in timely and helpful ways.
      • Draft study (students volunteer a segment for class or small group help and discussion).
      • Student-led revision session using “Revising the Rough Draft” in Writer’s Notebook.
      • Peer feedback on clarity of thinking and development of claim/argument.
      • Read aloud for peer and adult feedback.
      • Strategies for embedding information – citation methods, quoting, paraphrasing (minimum one citation per paragraph).

      1 class periods

      5. Editing

      Ability to apply editing strategies and presentation applications.

      Final draft

      Finalize draft for the readership; apply finishing touches (e.g., visuals, neatness, formatting, copyediting).

      Meets

      Demonstrates use of strategies that enhance the readability and appearance of the work for presentation.


      Not yet

      Attempts to meet the criteria for “meets.”

      • Use of error analysis to encourage self-correction of language usage and grammatical errors


      Final draft

      Submit your final draft before or on due date for scoring and feedback.




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