Paraphrase: To restate in another form or different words, often to make the meaning more clear or to reflect in one’s own words what another has already stated.

Resources for this term:
Energy Transfer
Energy Transfer

All parts of matter have kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the particles can change speed, resulting in phase change. The three states of matter on Earth are solid, liquid, and gas. During this module, 8th grade science students read texts on states of matter, kinetic energy, and particles and write an informational essay using Template Task 11 that explains the motion of the particles through the states of matter.

Should helmets be required?
Should helmets be required?

Some states do not require children over a certain age to wear helmets or protective gear while riding a bike. However, there is a potential risk of injury for riders. In this science module, 6th grade students read texts on Newton's Laws of Motion, bodily injury, and current state laws on helmet requirements. Using Template Task 2, students write a letter arguing whether or not helmets should be required for adolescents during recreational activities.

The Great War: Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles
The Great War: Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles

Students study a variety of primary sources, maps, and supporting documents concerning the post-war peace process, developing a context for evaluating whether the treaty was viable and fair. Students also consider complex questions surrounding historical causality and responsibility. This argumentation module is written around Template Task 2 for a high school social studies class.

Extended Metaphors in Walt Whitman’s “O Captain! My Captain!”
Extended Metaphors in Walt Whitman’s “O Captain! My Captain!”

“O Captain! My Captain!” is one of Walt Whitman’s most famous poems. Whitman not only expresses his own grief over the loss of Abraham Lincoln, but also represents the somber feelings of many Americans during a time when they otherwise would have been celebrating the Union’s Civil War victory. Whitman uses a number of extended metaphors – most notably comparing Lincoln to the captain of a ship – to speak for the nation. Using Template Task 2, 8th grade students determine if Whitman was justified in his comparisons.

Biodiversity
Biodiversity

Earth is rich with an amazing variety of life. Is it important to preserve this biodiversity? This introductory writing assignment for a life science class focuses on introducing 7th grade students to the concept and importance of biodiversity. After reading articles on biodiversity, students write a report that defines “biodiversity” and explain its importance by following Template Task 11.

The Cold War
The Cold War

Students will read primary sources to help gain understanding of the Cold War from 1945 to 1975. Major themes explored in the unit include political decisions and actions of the U.S. and foreign governments, military strategies, and reactions of American Society. Students will use the knowledge of the time period and evidence from primary source documents to write a rough draft of an argumentation essay in response to the teaching task. Students will complete the teaching task in preparation for a final classroom assessment task. Students will learn most of the content first and complete the literacy module at the end of the unit.

U.S. Intervention in Foreign Wars
U.S. Intervention in Foreign Wars

As the United States expanded and developed into a global power in the early 1900s, its leaders became concerned with the affairs of other nations. As result, the U.S. took on a wider range of responsibilities in the world and became involved in foreign wars. This argumentation module asks 7th grade social studies students to answer Template Task 2 and write a letter to the President of the United States, arguing whether or not the U.S. should become involved in foreign wars.

Government of the People
Government of the People

*EXEMPLAR MODULE* This argumentation module asks 9th and 10th grade students in a humanities class to read two famous speeches regarding the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democracy. Students are challenged to closely analyze these speeches in terms of language structure and democratic ideals by answering Template Task 4. The instructional sequence in this module includes independent and supported reading, conceptual dialogue, writing a comparative analysis essay, and Paideia Seminar discussion. Ultimately, students practice a series of interrelated literacy skills while gaining a deeper understanding of the historical rhetoric of two iconic leaders. The classroom assessment builds on the comparative analysis writing practice and challenges students to expand their thinking about rhetoric in contemporary American democracy.

You Can Run, but You Can
You Can Run, but You Can't Hide!

Ninth grade advanced reading students are asked to explore the influence that digital technology has on their everyday lives. Using Template Task 8, students write an editorial that identifies a problem caused by others using the digital footprints we either purposely or inadvertently create. Students examine the intersection of social media and virtual and real life vulnerability. Students will take a close look at the implications of identity theft, unsolicited background checks, social media, and other ways we potentially expose ourselves through the use of technology.

U.S. Policy of Isolationism vs. Aggression in the 1930s
U.S. Policy of Isolationism vs. Aggression in the 1930s

In this high school social studies argumentation module, students answer Template Task 7. This module fits within a larger unit covering U.S. foreign policy during the 1930s, in which students develop an understanding of the actions of world leaders of the period. After conducting research, students write an essay that identifies a problem with U.S. policy during this time period and argues for a solution.

Plastics…to Use or Not to Use?
Plastics…to Use or Not to Use?

Students will construct an argumentation piece that defends their position on the widely debated topic of the use of plastic water bottles and storage containers for drinks and foods. The unit of study, within which this module happens to fall, is chemical bonding. Students have been discussing three types of chemical bonding: ionic, covalent, and metallic, and how this type of bonding affects the structure of matter. Students will construct a piece defending their position, as well as using their knowledge of chemical bonding and compounds to explain either the benefits or the harmful effects of using plastics to contain our everyday foods and drinks.

The British Industrial Revolution
The British Industrial Revolution

*EXEMPLAR MODULE* By addressing Template Task 2, 10th grade social studies students answer the question: Were the achievements and growth experienced during the Industrial Revolution era worth the cost to society? This module sits inside a global history unit in which students study the Age of Revolution, focusing on the British Industrial Revolution.

The Power of Language (Communication is More than Language)
The Power of Language (Communication is More than Language)

*EXEMPLAR MODULE* This language arts module addresses the effects of language structures in nonfiction and poetry. This module involves critical analysis of genre structure, grammar, and literary devices. NOTE: This module is designed to teach and assess the Common Core State Standards College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening, including a formal and rigorous dialogue about concepts and ideas, as well as Common Core Reading and Writing standards.

Language Is Power
Language Is Power

This argumentation module for a high school English class is designed to follow a class reading of Animal Farm and asks students to examine the propaganda and fallacies present in the novel’s events and dialogue. Students analyze the novel using Template Task 2.

Cryobiology
Cryobiology

*EXEMPLAR MODULE* This module is nested within a larger unit on states and properties of matter in a physical science class. Eighth grade students expound upon these topics by examining the field of cryobiology, which is the study of living things at very low temperatures. Students will examine the pros and cons of the techniques used, as this science relies on a number of controversial and cutting edge technologies, and formulate an argument based on scientific facts using Template Task 2.

A Reading of the Gettysburg Address
A Reading of the Gettysburg Address

In this argumentation module, 9th and 10th grade students perform a close reading of the Gettysburg Address, participate in a Paideia Seminar on the text, and write an essay in which they evaluate Lincoln’s definition of democracy based on the speech using Template Task 6. This unit merges American history content with Common Core literacy skills.

Nuclear Sustainability
Nuclear Sustainability

*EXEMPLAR MODULE* In this Project Based Learning (PBL) unit, 11th grade chemistry students are asked to answer the question, “Is nuclear energy sustainable?” by responding to Template Task 2. First, students are introduced to their task through an entry event in which they are given a brief introduction to the nuclear energy controversy and are told they will be writing an op-ed piece arguing for or against nuclear power based on their knowledge of the atom, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear power. They are also tasked with creating a public service announcement to persuade others of their views. After identifying what they know and want to learn about nuclear chemistry and nuclear power, they research the topics, complete labs and activities about atomic structure, read a number of different opinion pieces, and hear a presentation from an activist. They work collaboratively in groups for much of the process. Then they write their op-ed individually and complete the public service announcement in groups. The project concludes with presentations of their editorials and public service announcements to the class and community activists.

Ancient India and China
Ancient India and China

Ancient India and China both developed along river valleys and became flourishing civilizations. This module will explore the geography, culture/customs, and the government of these two civilizations. Students will then draw conclusions or make implications in regard to the development and longevity of one of the cultures and how it developed with its own unique government and culture/customs. Students will be assigned one culture for research, and through shared presentations, students will be exposed to both cultures.

Good Readers and Good Writers
Good Readers and Good Writers

Targeted for 10th grade English Language Arts students, this unit uses texts at different levels of difficulty to reach readers of varying ability levels. Students examine four texts to determine what qualities one must have to be considered a "good reader" and a "good writer." This module uses Template Task 2."

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