Primary source: Material that is closest to what is being studied, usually an artifact, document, recording, or interview, that was created during the time period or within the context under investigation by a person directly involved in the event.

Resources for this term:
Government of the People
Government of the People

*EXEMPLAR MODULE* This argumentation module asks 9th and 10th grade students in a humanities class to read two famous speeches regarding the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a democracy. Students are challenged to closely analyze these speeches in terms of language structure and democratic ideals by answering Template Task 4. The instructional sequence in this module includes independent and supported reading, conceptual dialogue, writing a comparative analysis essay, and Paideia Seminar discussion. Ultimately, students practice a series of interrelated literacy skills while gaining a deeper understanding of the historical rhetoric of two iconic leaders. The classroom assessment builds on the comparative analysis writing practice and challenges students to expand their thinking about rhetoric in contemporary American democracy.

Letter to Congress
Letter to Congress

In this English and U.S. history module, 11th grade students research fundamental elements of the Constitution, landmark Supreme Court cases, and a modern congressional issue. Using Template Task 1, students participate in the democratic process by writing letters to a member of Congress arguing their positions on a constitutional issue of their choosing.

The Great War: Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles
The Great War: Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles

Students study a variety of primary sources, maps, and supporting documents concerning the post-war peace process, developing a context for evaluating whether the treaty was viable and fair. Students also consider complex questions surrounding historical causality and responsibility. This argumentation module is written around Template Task 2 for a high school social studies class.

Recognizing Human Rights Violations in Countries in Crisis
Recognizing Human Rights Violations in Countries in Crisis

Students learn to recognize and analyze human rights violations in historical or current texts by using primary and secondary sources. Using Template Task 20, 10th grade English Language Arts students apply the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to analyze human rights violations in a specific country.

Ideologies of the 19th Century
Ideologies of the 19th Century

As 9th grade students engage in this history module, they apply what they previously learned in a unit on political ideologies in Europe in the 19th century to answer Template Task 2. The module reinforces students’ ability to develop a historical essay through the research and writing processes.

Julius Caesar: Hero or tyrant?
Julius Caesar: Hero or tyrant?

The Roman Empire was the largest and most enduring empire in the ancient world. The Romans had highly organized political, social, religious, technological, and economic systems that enabled them to control the territories and people within their borders. This 7th grade world history unit is embedded in the study of empires and the management systems they used. Students use both primary and secondary resources in their research on Julius Caesar. Using Template Task 2, students will investigate Caesar as an emblem of the Roman Empire's strengths and weaknesses and argue whether he should be considered a hero or a tyrant.

The Cold War
The Cold War

Students will read primary sources to help gain understanding of the Cold War from 1945 to 1975. Major themes explored in the unit include political decisions and actions of the U.S. and foreign governments, military strategies, and reactions of American Society. Students will use the knowledge of the time period and evidence from primary source documents to write a rough draft of an argumentation essay in response to the teaching task. Students will complete the teaching task in preparation for a final classroom assessment task. Students will learn most of the content first and complete the literacy module at the end of the unit.

The British Industrial Revolution
The British Industrial Revolution

*EXEMPLAR MODULE* By addressing Template Task 2, 10th grade social studies students answer the question: Were the achievements and growth experienced during the Industrial Revolution era worth the cost to society? This module sits inside a global history unit in which students study the Age of Revolution, focusing on the British Industrial Revolution.

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